Source of the research subject: The research subject was entrusted supported by the Program of Tackling Hard-nut Problems in Science and Technology of the “Tenth Five-year Plan” of China.
Study period: From January 2002 to December 2004
Award: The research subject won a First Award of Scientific and Technological Progress of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2005.
Main accomplishing scientists: 1 Chen Yaning, 7 Li Weihong
Brief introduction of the research subject
After developing the key ecological security theory and the integrated key technologies of agricultural development in desert oases, the integrated demonstration area (5000 mu, 333 ha.) of compound growing of crops, forests, herbages and herbal plants, demonstration area (3500 mu, 233 ha.) of desert herbal plants and demonstration area (12700 mu, 847 ha.) of desert vegetation regeneration and ecological security safeguard system in the marginal zone of oases were built up. The per unit area production value of agriculture and animal husbandry in these demonstration areas was increased by 45%, the vegetation coverage was increased to over 75%, and the significant economic returns, social effects and ecological benefits were attained. Moreover, the successful modes of desert vegetation regeneration and integrated agricultural development in the marginal zone of arid desert oases can be provided, the projects of income increase of the local farmers and herdsmen and of ecological improvement can be promoted, some innovations in exploitation of land resources and construction of ecological security in desert areas are brought about, and the application foreground of the study achievements is vast. The research achievements were based on considering the momentous key scientific and technological issues of agricultural development and ecological construction in arid desert oases, the theoretical framework of constructing ecological security guarantee system including mainly the protective ecological security, biological ecological security and water-soil ecological security in the arid desert oases was developed based on a lot of studies and experiments, the ecological integration of desert vegetation in the marginal zone of oases and artificial vegetation within the oasis industrial areas was discussed, the supporting technologies and modes of natural vegetation regeneration and agricultural development in the marginal zone of oases were developed and integrated, and the theoretical and technological innovations were obtained: (1) The main growing plant species i.e., Ephedra sinica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Cistanche salsa adaptive to grow on large scale in arid deserts in Xinjiang, were selected, and the supporting growing techniques and modes were suggested: (2) After planting the adventitious crops, 10 crop varieties and intercropping varieties adaptive to the compound growing of crops, forests, herbages and herbal plants in the local areas were selected, and the crop-forest compound technical modes of protective till-less effective growing, interplanting of forests and herbal plants, intercropping of forests and crops, and hi-crop windbreaks in the newly-reclaimed land were developed; (3) The technical modes of soil desalinization, biological soil improvement, saline or alkaline soil improvement in the newly-reclaimed land, and quick soil fertilization were developed and integrated; (4) The technical modes of water-saving irrigation in arid desert oases were selected and integrated by incorporating pipe irrigation, film-tectorial growing and film-tectorial irrigation together; (5) The technical modes of regeneration of desert vegetation under drought stress, seriously-degenerated desert vegetation, desert vegetation without irrigation, consolidation of desert vegetation with artificial vegetation, and desert vegetation in secondary vegetation-uncovered land were developed and integrated; (6) A “triunity” construction mode of ecological security guarantee system in arid desert oases was put forward.